User Tools

Site Tools

Year Author 作者 Title Language
1832 Medhurst, Walter Henry (麥都思) Orthography of the Hok-këèn Dialect 《福建方言字典》
1853 Doty, Elihu (羅啻) Anglo-Chinese Manual with Romanized Colloquial 《翻譯英華廈腔語彙》
1869 MacGowan, John A manual of the Amoy colloquial
1873 Douglas, Carstairs(杜嘉德) Chinese-English dictionary of the vernacular or spoken language of Amoy,
With the principal variations of the Chang-chew and Chinchew dialects 《廈英大辭典》
1882 J. J. C. Francken(佛蘭根), C. F. M. de Grijs(赫萊斯) Chineesch-Hollandsch woordenboek van het Emoi dialekt 《廈荷大辭典》
1891 Mackay, Geobge Leslie(馬偕) 《中西字典》
1894 Talmage(打馬字) 《廈門音个字典》
1911 Warnshuis, A. Livingston and H.P. de Pree Lessons in the Amoy vernacular
1913 Campbell, William A dictionary of the Amoy vernacular spoken throughout the prefectures
Chin-chiu, Chiang-chiu and Formosa (Taiwan)
1923 Barclay, Thomas Supplement to dictionary of the vernacular or spoken language of Amoy
1831 Dean, William First Lessons in the Tie-Chiw Dialect
1877 Giles, Herbert Allen Handbook of the Swatow Dialect: With a Vocabulary
1878 Fielde, Adele Marion First Lessons in the Swatow Dialect
1883 Fielde, Adele Marion A Pronouncing and Defining Dictionary of the Swatow Dialect Arranged according to Syllables and Tones
1883 Duffus, William English-Chinese Vocabulary of the Vernacular or Spoken Language of Swatow
1884 Ashmore, William Primary Lessons in Swatow Grammar
1886 Lim, Hiong Seng Handbook of the Swatow Vernacular
1886 Gibson, John Campbell A Swatow Index of the Syllabic Dictionary of Chinese
1889 Duffus, William, and Gibson, John Campbell Sin-Ieh Ma-Thai Hok-Im Tsu Tshuan-Tsu (Ek-So Tie-Chiu Peh-Ue)
1896 Anonymous Ku-Ieh Tshang-Si Ki Tshuan-Tsu (Ek-Tso Tie-Chiu Peh-Ue)
1924 Steele, John The Swatow Syllabary with Mandarin Pronunciations
1870 R. S. Maclay, C. C. Baldwin and Samuel H. Leger Dictionary of the Foochow Dialect


Word-Initial (IPA) [p] [pʰ] [b] [m] [t] [tʰ] [n] [l] [k] [kʰ] [g] [ŋ] [h] [ʨ] [ʦ] [s] [ʣ]
blah p ph b m t th n l k kh g ng h ts tsh s j


IPA [a] [e] [i] [ə] [ɔ] u [u]
blah a e i o ou u

Tone marks

,入 ,入
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
acute grave circumflex caron macron vertical line above double accute
ˊ ˋ ˇ ˆ ˉ ˈ ˶
a á à ah â ă ā âh ˶


  • 徐宇航,十九世紀的潮州方言音系,《中國文化研究所學報》 Journal of Chinese Studies No. 57 - July 2013.
orthography_history.txt · Last modified: 2020/11/08 07:15 by pektiong