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orthography

Tâi-uân lô-má-jī orthography

In this article, we describe the orthography of “Tâi-uân lô-má-jī”. Three variants will be included.

  1. TL(o͘/ⁿ) variant.
  2. TL(oo/nn) variant.
  3. POJ (with Tiuⁿ,Jū-hông's extension).

Alphabet

TL(o͘/ⁿ)

Majuscule forms (also called uppercase or capital letters)
o͘/ⁿAAᴺ
Aⁿ
BEEᴺ
Eⁿ
GHIIᴺ
Iⁿ
JKKH
Kh
LMNNG
Ng
OOᴺ
Oⁿ
PPH
Ph
STTH
Th
TS
Ts
TSH
Tsh
UUᴺ
Uⁿ
ER
Er
IR
Ir
EE
Ee
oo/nnAANN
Ann
BEENN
Enn
GHIINN
Inn
JKKH
Kh
LMNNG
Ng
OOOONN
Onn
PPH/PhSTTH
Th
TS
Ts
TSH
Tsh
UUNN
Unn
Minuscule forms (also called lowercase or small letters)
o͘/ⁿaaⁿbeeⁿghiiⁿjkkhlmnngooⁿpphstthtstshuuⁿ er ir ee
oo/nnaannbeennghiinnjkkhlmnngoooonnpphstthtstshuunn
index1234567891011121314151617181920212223242526272829303132

POJ

Majuscule forms (also called uppercase or capital letters)
ABCH/Ch CHH/ChhEGHIJKKH/KhLMNNG/NgOPPH/PhSTTH/ThU-
Minuscule forms (also called lowercase or small letters)
abchchheghijkkhlmnngopphstthu-
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Note:

Hyphen is included as one of the alphabet.

Multigraphs are treated as sequences with regard to the rules of capitalization:

  • ALL CAPS: TSHU.
  • First word of a sentence: Tshu.

:er發音為[ǝ] ir發音為[ɨ] ee發音為[ԑ] ere

Diacritics

Taiwanese makes use of five diacritics: the acute accent, grave, circumflex accent, macron, vertical line above.

Majuscule forms (also called uppercase or capital letters)Minuscule forms (also called lowercase or small letters)
AEIOUMNGaeioumng
acute ÁÉÍÓÓ͘ÚŃGáéíóó͘úḿńg
grave ÀÈÌÒÒ͘ÙǸGáéíóó͘úḿńg
circumflex ÂÊÎÔÔ͘ÛN̂Gâêîôô͘ûn̂g
caron ǍĚǏǑǑ͘ǓŇGǎěǐǒǒ͘ǔňg
macron ĀĒĪŌŌ͘ŪN̄Gāēīōō͘ūn̄g
vertical line above O̍͘N̍Go̍͘n̍g
double accute ŐŐ͘N̋Gőő͘űn̋g

They are used to denote the tone as follows:

,入 ,入
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
acute grave circumflex caron macron vertical line above double accute
ˊ ˋ ˇ ˆ ˉ ˈ ˶
  • 促聲[tshik-siann] (-h)
  • 入聲[ji̍p-siann] (-p,-t,-k)

Consonants

blah p ph b m t th n l k kh g ng h ts tsh s j
Word-Initial (IPA) [p] [pʰ] [b] [m] [t] [tʰ] [n] [l] [k] [kʰ] [g] [ŋ] [h] [ʨ] [ʦ] [s] [ʣ]
orthography.txt · Last modified: 2020/11/06 01:46 by pektiong