orthography

# Tâi-uân lô-má-jī orthography

In this article, we describe the orthography of “Tâi-uân lô-má-jī”. Three variants will be included.

1. TL(o͘/ⁿ) variant.
2. TL(oo/nn) variant.
3. POJ (with Tiuⁿ,Jū-hông's extension).

## Alphabet

### TL(o͘/ⁿ)

Majuscule forms (also called uppercase or capital letters) Minuscule forms (also called lowercase or small letters) index 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 o͘/ⁿ A Aᴺ Aⁿ B E Eᴺ Eⁿ G H I Iᴺ Iⁿ J K KH Kh L M N NG Ng O O͘ Oᴺ Oⁿ P PH Ph S T TH Th TS Ts TSH Tsh U Uᴺ Uⁿ ER Er IR Ir EE Ee oo/nn A ANN Ann B E ENN Enn G H I INN Inn J K KH Kh L M N NG Ng O OO ONN Onn P PH/Ph S T TH Th TS Ts TSH Tsh U UNN Unn o͘/ⁿ a aⁿ b e eⁿ g h i iⁿ j k kh l m n ng o o͘ oⁿ p ph s t th ts tsh u uⁿ er ir ee oo/nn a ann b e enn g h i inn j k kh l m n ng o oo onn p ph s t th ts tsh u unn

### POJ

 Majuscule forms (also called uppercase or capital letters) Minuscule forms (also called lowercase or small letters) A B CH/Ch CHH/Chh E G H I J K KH/Kh L M N ᴺ NG/Ng O O͘ P PH/Ph S T TH/Th U - a b ch chh e g h i j k kh l m n ⁿ ng o o͘ p ph s t th u - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

Note:

Hyphen is included as one of the alphabet.

Multigraphs are treated as sequences with regard to the rules of capitalization:

• ALL CAPS: TSHU.
• First word of a sentence: Tshu.

：er發音為[ǝ] ir發音為[ɨ] ee發音為[ԑ] ere

## Diacritics

Taiwanese makes use of five diacritics: the acute accent, grave, circumflex accent, macron, vertical line above.

 Majuscule forms (also called uppercase or capital letters) Minuscule forms (also called lowercase or small letters) A E I O O͘ U M NG a e i o o͘ u m ng acute Á É Í Ó Ó͘ Ú Ḿ ŃG á é í ó ó͘ ú ḿ ńg grave À È Ì Ò Ò͘ Ù M̀ ǸG á é í ó ó͘ ú ḿ ńg circumflex Â Ê Î Ô Ô͘ Û M̂ N̂G â ê î ô ô͘ û m̂ n̂g caron Ǎ Ě Ǐ Ǒ Ǒ͘ Ǔ M̌ ŇG ǎ ě ǐ ǒ ǒ͘ ǔ m̌ ňg macron Ā Ē Ī Ō Ō͘ Ū M̄ N̄G ā ē ī ō ō͘ ū m̄ n̄g vertical line above A̍ E̍ I̍ O̍ O̍͘ U̍ M̍ N̍G a̍ e̍ i̍ o̍ o̍͘ u̍ m̍ n̍g double accute A̋ E̋ I̋ Ő Ő͘ I̋ M̋ N̋G a̋ e̋ i̋ ő ő͘ ű m̋ n̋g

They are used to denote the tone as follows:

 陰 陽 平 上 去 入促，入入 平 上 acute grave circumflex caron macron vertical line above double accute ˊ ˋ ˇ ˆ ˉ ˈ ˶
• 促聲[tshik-siann] (-h)
• 入聲[ji̍p-siann] (-p,-t,-k)

## Consonants

 blah Word-Initial (IPA) p ph b m t th n l k kh g ng h ts tsh s j [p] [pʰ] [b] [m] [t] [tʰ] [n] [l] [k] [kʰ] [g] [ŋ] [h] [ʨ] [ʦ] [s] [ʣ]